The defining spirit or mood of a particular period of history as shown by the ideas and. beliefs of the time. Barbara Vinkens definition: A trend characterized by representation of traces of the past.
What is the Zeitgeist theory?
A Zeitgeist theory of history stresses the role of such situational factors as economics, technology, and social influences in contrast to the. The term was first used in English by British poet and literary critic Matthew Arnold (1822–1888) and introduced to psychology in 1929 by Edwin G.
Great man theory and zeitgeist theory may be included in two main areas of thought in psychology. For instance, great man theory is very similar to the trait approach. Trait researchers are interested in identifying the various personality traits that underline human behaviors such as conformity, leadership, or other social behaviors. Thus, they agree that leadership is primarily a quality of an individual and that some people are pre-dispositioned to be a leader whereas others are born to follow these leaders. In contrast, situationist researchers believe that social behavior is a product of society. That is, social influence is what determines human behaviors. Therefore, situationism is of the same opinion as zeitgeist theory—leaders are created from the social environment and are molded from the situation. The concept of zeitgeist also relates to the sociological tradition that stems from Émile Durkheim and recently developed into social capital theory as exemplified by the work of Patrick Hunout
PURPOSE OF STUDY OF 1800s SPIRIT OF TIMES.
HOW FASHION HAS CHANGED AND CONSTANTLY CHANGING TRENDS FROM DIFFERENT ERA’S.
•WE HAVE CHOSEN FOR 20’s ERA.BECAUSE 20’s FASHION CHANGED DRAMATICALLY BECAUSE IT GAVE FREEDOM TO EXPRESS THEMSELVES AFTER THE FIRST WORLD WAR. DURING THAT TIME NEW AND COLOUR FUL FABRICS APPEARED AND THE POPULATION WAS COMING OUT OF ITS SHELL BECAUSE THE END OF HOSTILITY HAD ARRIVED 20’s WOMEN FASHION.
Who were the 1920’s Fashion Icons?
•The 1920’s Fashion icons included Hollywood
•movie stars such as Norma Shearer
•, Joan Crawford, Clara Bow, Louise Brooks, Marie Provost, Marlene Dietrich
•, Gloria Swanson and Colleen Moore. Other Fashion icons included Zelda Fitzgerald
•, Josephine Baker, other celebrities and members of royalty.
What were main 1920’s Fashion trends that characterized the era?
The main 1920’s Fashion trends for women were: •
● Short Flapper style clothes that provided freedom of movement
● Striking Art Deco designs
● Cloche hats and bobbed hairstyles
● The boyish ‘garconne’ look and adoption of male clothing
● Casual styles for day wear as worn by Norma Shearer in the photo
● Fun, fringed flapper dresses or glamorous silk gowns for evening attire
Facts about the 1920’s Fashion for Women
• Trends: The trends and styles were highly influenced by art movements in the 1920’s Surrealism, Impressionism and Art Deco with strong colors and geometric shapes that conveyed the “modern” look. The Hollywood movies, the glamorous movie stars, the changing role of women, the rise in Consumerism and mass advertising during the prosperous period of the Roaring Twenties saw a fashion boom in America. •Fabrics: Expensive fabrics such as velvet, silk and furs were favored by the wealthy. Cotton and wool were in abundance, and cheaper. Synthetic fabrics such as viscose rayon, “artificial silk”, and jersey were also used. Fabrics became more elaborate during the 1920s and were often printed with designs reflecting Egyptian art.
•The ‘Garconne’ look and Coco Chanel:
•The boyish ‘garconne’ look (“boy” with a feminine suffix) and adoption of male clothing was introduced by fashion designer Coco Chanel and favored by movie stars like Marlene Dietrich. The liberating androgynous styles were daring and innovative. Coco Chanel is credited with liberating women from the constraints of the “corseted silhouette” and introducing sporty, casual chic to the modern women of the era. Coco Chanel used male themes like sailors outfits and mechanic’s dungarees as inspirations for her fashions. Men’s sweaters were worn with a belt around the waist, women wore tailored suits complete with shirt and tie. Short knickerbockers and baggy trousers also became in vogue enabling women to enjoy comfortable sports clothing for golf and and bicycling. Coco Chanel is also famous for popularizing the ‘little black dress’.
What were the names of 1920’s Fashion Designers?
The names of the most Famous 1920’s Fashion designers included Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel, Jeanne Lanvin, Elsa Schiaparelli, Sonia Delauney, Jean Patou, Madeleine Vionnet, Florrie Westwood, Norman Hartnell, Hilda Steward and Victor Stiebel.
•Jeanne Lanvin (1867 – 1946) was known for her youthful, modern clothingand fashion styles that gave women freedom of movement. The Lanvin trademark was light, clear, floral colors and the use of complex trimmings and beadings. She was famous for her “robe de style,” the chemise and the Breton suit.
•Sonia Delaunay (1885 – 1979) was an influential fashion designer in the 1920’s who used Art Deco and Surrealist Poets as her inspiration. Sonia Delaunay created stunning fabric designs using geometrical shapes of squares, stripes, triangles and diamonds with bold colors on what she called her ‘poem-dresses’.
•Norman Hartnell (1901 – 1979) was an English fashion designer who became the favorite of the social elite including the British Royal family. His designs were characterized by expensive and lavish embroidery that created a highly luxurious effect. He opened his London based couture house in 1923 and began his association with the royal family during the 1930s.
•Madeleine Vionnet (1876 – 1975) was a French fashion designer who created sleek, soft clothes and introduced the bias cut to 1920’s fashion. • •The bias cut was a technique for cutting cloth diagonal to the grain of the fabric which enabled it to cling to the body whilst moving with the wearer. • •Madeleine Vionnet styles were characterized by the handkerchief dress, the cowl neck, and the halter top.
Invention during world war 1 that influence fashion
Now a fashion icon, the trench coat first gained popularity among British officers during World War I because of its functionality. “They were different in cut and weight than the heavy overcoats worn by enlisted men,” says Jonathan Casey, director of the archives and Edward Jones Research Center at the National World War I Museum and Memorial. The water-resistant overcoats proved superior to the standard wool coats in repelling the rain and chill of the trenches—from which the garment gained its name. They also featured flaps and rings for securing weapons and map cases. Within months of the war’s start, London retailers such as Burberry and Aquascutum were advertising trench coats to the British public.
•Although not called the zipper until the B.F. Goodrich Company coined the term in 1923, the “hookless fastener” was perfected by Gideon Sundback during World War I. The first major order of zippers came for money belts worn by soldiers and sailors who lacked uniform pockets. While buttons remained the convention on military uniforms during the war, zippers began to be sewn into the flying suits of aviators and took off in popularity in the 1920s.
•Prior to World War I, wristwatches were worn almost exclusively by women as fashion accessories. Most men used pocket watches on chains as their time keepers, but they proved impractical in trench warfare. “It was a lot easier to wear a wristwatch than use a pocket watch in the heat of battle particularly for an officer who might have a sidearm in one hand and a whistle in another,” Casey says. Wristwatches also proved necessary for aviators who needed both hands at all times. After proving their utility in warfare, wristwatches gained acceptance as a men’s fashion accessory.
ALTHOUGH WE ARE IN 2021 BUT 1920’s FASHION WAS THE HUGE PART OF SOCIAL CHANGE DURING THAT ERA OF HISTORY, AND IT’S IMPACT REMAINS IN EFFECT TODAY. WITHOUT THE STYLE EVOLUTION THAT OCCURRED IN THE 1920’s , THE FASHION INDUSTRY COULD BE DRASTICALLY DIFFERENT. SO, THE CHANGES AFTER 1920’s WAS IMPORTANT…